Earth in 2100: Nasa maps reveal how climate change will cause temperatures to soar
- Nasa has released 11 terabytes of data predicting temperature and rainfall
- It allows scientists to predict climate change for individual towns and cities
- A map released by Nasa shows large areas in July 2100 will exceed 45°C
It looks like the world could be a much hotter place by the end of the century.
New data released by Nasa scientists is revealing how temperature and rainfall patterns around the world may change by the year 2100.
Using climate change predictions based on increasing levels of carbon dioxide, the data reveals what may happen to the climate in individual towns and cities.
Nasa has released new data that show how temperature and rainfall patterns will change around the world by 2100. The map above, produced using the data, shows the maximum daily temperatures in July under climate scenarios that predict carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere will reach 935 parts per million
Much of the data is still in raw form for now to allow scientists to run models on a daily timescale.
However, a map of the world released by Nasa, which shows the predicted temperature for July 2100, provides some clues for what the world may look like.
By that time, carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere will have reached 935 parts per million, meaning the gas comprises nearly 0.1 per cent of the atmosphere.
Earlier this year carbon dioxide levels reached 400 parts per million.
If by the end of the century carbon dioxide in the atmosphere more than doubles, much of Africa, South America and India will endure average daily maximum temperatures of more than 45°C.
Jerusalem, New York, Los Angeles and Mumbai could see summer temperatures reaching these levels too.
London will experience temperatures in the mid 20s and Paris could see its July temperatures reaching the low 30s.
Ellen Stofan, chief scientist at Nasa, said: ‘Nasa is in the business of taking what we’ve learned about our planet from space and creating new products that help us all safeguard our future.
‘With this new global dataset, people around the world have a valuable new tool to use in planning how to cope with a warming planet.’
The new dataset is the latest product from Nasa’s Earth Exchange (NEX), a big-data research platform within the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Centre its Ames Research Center in California.
The data shows projected changes worldwide in response to rising carbon dioxide levels and can be viewed on a daily timescale for individual towns and cities.
Unlike other climate prediction maps, which tend to show how global temperatures will differ from a pre-industrial average or current levels, the data gives predicted values.
Nasa says the data will help scientists and planners better understand the risks facing the world due to climate change.
This annotated map shows how the temperature of key cities around the world will change by the year 2100
By comparison this map shows the average land surface temperatures around the world in July 2014. Much of north Africa, the Middle East and the west coast of the United States experienced temperatures of 45°C
It may also allow them to better plan for climate related hazards such as drought, floods, heatwaves and losses in agricultural productivity.
An earlier set of data released by Nasa in 2013 providing climate projections for the United States is already being used to calculate risks to the nation’s agriculture, forests, rivers and cities.
Dr Ramakrishna Nemani, Nasa’s Earth Exchange project scientist, said: ‘This is a fundamental dataset for climate research and assessment with a wide range of applications.
‘Nasa continues to produce valuable community-based data products on the Nex platform to promote scientific collaboration, knowledge sharing, and research and development.’
Nasa’s new data, which totals more than 11 terabytes, integrates actual measurements from around the world with data from climate simulations.
Maximum temperatures in North Africa, the Middle East and northern India will exceed 45°C by 2100, as can be seen in the close up of the region from the maps produced using Nasa’s new climate projection data set
It provides both rainfall and temperature projections at a resolution of around 15.5 miles (25km), between 1950 and 2100 across the entire globe.
The map shows that much of North Africa, India and equatorial parts of South America will face summer temperatures in July that regularly exceed 45°C.
Exactly how much this differs from current temperatures is not clear as Nasa has not released maps showing comparative temperatures.
However, daily average high temperatures in Africa, for example, can reach 47°C in July although the daily mean temperature is around 39°C.
For those with the computing power and hard drive space, the data can be downloaded here.
This close up of northern South America and central America shows how the region will be effected by 2100
He said: “Six and seven year olds were tied to racks and given electric shocks.
“I was incarcerated with orderlies armed with rubber coshes.
“We were imprisoned, experimented upon, lobotomies, you name it, they did it.
“I was there, I saw it with my own eyes.
We were imprisoned, experimented upon, lobotomies, you name it, they did it
“The drug programme ran from 1948 to 1982.
“I believe this happened throughout the UK but I’m referring to Scotland.
“I have this evidence, on paper and on film, and I will hand it to the public inquiry.
“It was like something out of Auschwitz and people will be full of revulsion when they learn the state allowed this to happen.”
Lennox Castle Hospital, which closed in 2002 and is now the site of Celtic FC’s training ground, was home to children and adults with learning difficulties or conditions such as Down’s syndrome, as well as truants, unmarried mothers and wayward teenagers.
Some patients were sent there as children, often for the most trivial reasons, and ended up spending decades locked up.
Conditions improved after a series of damning reports and investigations, including a 1986 World in Action TV documentary which led to questions in the House of Commons.
Last night, Professor Ulf Schmidt of the University of Kent, Britain’s leading expert on human experimentation at Porton Down, said he had never heard of a drug trial programme involving orphans.
He added: “That is not to say these experiments didn’t happen, but I would be very cautious in dealing with these allegations.
“Some stories have appeared and reappeared over the past 50 years, including a similar one about drug testing and euthanasia involving elderly people that was eventually shown to be false.”
Six years ago hundreds of veterans who ‘volunteered’ to take part in tests at Porton Down were offered £3million in compensation.
They were exposed to nerve agents, such as sarin gas, and hallucinogens, such as LSD.
In the most infamous case, from 1953, Ronald Maddison took part in a trial of what he believed was a cold remedy, but died within an hour of having sarin dabbed on his arm.
Other Porton Down experiments included spraying bacteria over the south coast of England and dropping cancer-causing particles from planes.
And Gruinard Island in Wester Ross had to be sealed off for almost 50 years after it was contaminated with anthrax during the Second World War.
Porton Down is the home of the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, an agency of the Ministry of Defence.
A spokeswoman said: “We are not aware of any tests involving children at Portown Down and have seen absolutely no evidence to back up these claims.”
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