The Concise Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science edited by W. Edward Craighead, Charles B. Nemeroff
Sadistic Ritual Abuse (SRA; Goodwin, 1992), also known as satanic ritual abuse has been defined as a “method of control of people of all ages consisting of psychical, sexual, and psychological mistreatment through the use of rituals” (Rhoades, 1999, p. 884).
Levels and Symbols of Satanism
Satanism has been defined in four levels (Simandl, 1997):
(1) the experimental-dabbler, typically a teenager; (2) non-traditional, self-styled satanists, individuals or small groups obsessed with satanic themes; (3) organized traditional satanists, organized religious groups that are protected by religious freedom under American law, such as the Church of Satan; and (4) occultic networking or transgenerational cults, SRA groups perpetuated through family generations and the focus of this article (Ryder, 1992).
Common reported satanic symbols (Pulling, 1989) include the pentagram, inverted pentagram, hexagram (Star of David), cross of Nero (peace symbol or broken cross), swastika, anarchy symbol, thaumaturgic triangle, udjat (all-seeing-eye), scarab, lightning bolts, the number 666, ankh, inverted cross, black mass indicator, an emblem of Baphomet, the symbol of the Church of Satan, and the cross of confusion.